The patient is a 19-year-old white Amerian-born woman seen at UCLA Center for the Health Sciences after a 6 month history of abdominal pain, intermittent loose stools, anorexia, nausea with occasional vomiting, weight loss, excessive gas, and headache . She had previously been in good health and had no history of allergy or foreign travel. She described the abdo. pain as a sharp burning pain the the mid-epigastric area which occurred 30 mins after eating and lasted 30 mins. The pain was not relieved by antacids. After treatment with diiodoxyquin for 21 days, the patient's symptoms resolved. Three repeat stools for parasites were negative.
Dientamoeba fragilis: A Gastrointestinal Protozoan Infection in Adults.
Mary J. Spencer, M.D., Martha R. Chapin, R.N., and Lynne S. Garcia, M.T.(ASCP)
Am.J.of Gastro. Vol.77. No.8. 1982

Researchers studied the medical records of 50 patients who had tested positive for D. fragilis. "Of these only 12 had been treated with an anti-amoebic drug - either metronidazole (Flagyl), diiodohydroxyquin (Iodoquionol), or tetracycline. Nine of these patients returned for follow-up. Six had received metrodinazole, and of these two were asymptomatic after one course and two were asymptomatic after two courses, one had improvement of symptoms, and one had no resolution of symptoms but symptoms cleared after treatment with diiodohydroxyquin."
DF: A Gastro. Protozoan Infection in Adults, Spencer et al.

"... it is inexcusable that so few laboratories attempt to identify this parasite, and it is illogical when one considers that D.fragilis infections, unlike those of Cryptosporidium parvum, can be treated effectively with a number of chemotherapeutic agents.".
JJ Windsor and E.H.Jonson, Br.J.Biomed Sc. 1999; 56 302

The patient is a 19-year-old white Amerian-born woman seen at UCLA Center for the Health Sciences after a 6 month history of abdominal pain, intermittent loose stools, anorexia, nausea with occasional vomiting, weight loss, excessive gas, and headache . She had previously been in good health and had no history of allergy or foreign travel. She described the abdo. pain as a sharp burning pain the the mid-epigastric area which occurred 30 mins after eating and lasted 30 mins. The pain was not relieved by antacids......... after treatment with diiodoxyquin for 21 days, the patient's symptoms resolved. Three repeat stools for parasites were negative.
Dientamoeba fragilis: A Gastrointestinal Protozoan Infection in Adults.
Mary J. Spencer, M.D., Martha R. Chapin, R.N., and Lynne S. Garcia, M.T.(ASCP) Am.J.of Gastro. Vol.77. No.8. 1982


It was not uncommon to find a statement written in the medical literature that D.fragilis was a non-pathogen and thus was not treated.

Dientamoeba fragilis: A Gastrointestinal Protozoan Infection in Adults.
Am.J.of Gastro. 1982. Spencer,et al

"I consider myself very fortunate. Thanks to the author of this site, a medical specialist was alerted to the effects of D. Fragilis. You will probably find resistance to a D. Fragilis diagnosis and treatment, but you should persevere. This site contains a wealth of information which your GP and your specialist can use to educate themselves if they are so inclined" Australian man since recovered from D.fragilis.

"I have just found your website after a couple of years of strange symptoms and finally had a positive testing for D.Fragilis. I have recently been to see my local doctor in the UK who started laughing when I presented the independent lab report, she stated that so many people come to the surgery as I have and complained about a parasite that all of us have and are not affected by, then went on to indicate that it was a waste of NHS resources!" UK. 2015

Treating D.fragilis

The most effective treatment for D.fragilis are based on the clinical experience of the Centre for Digestive Diseases in Sydney, a GI clinic with expertise in treating D.fragilis since 2001:

Combination of iodoquinol and doxycycline gives high Df eradication efficacy with an acceptable side-effect profile.

Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (2002) 17 (Suppl.) Eradication of Dientamoeba fragilis can resolve IBS-like symptoms
TJ BORODY, et al. Centre for Digestive Diseases. 2002.


Unfortunately, in mid 2015, the US manufacturer of Iodoquinol ceased production of this important and useful drug. Consequently, the treatment now prescribed by the CDD is:

Secnidazole 400 mg (30 Capsules) 3 times a day
- Doxycycline 50 mg (20 Capsules) 2 times a day.
all for 10 days.

Contact me for the official treatment sheet.

Treatment Experiences:

Metronidazole (Flagyl) & tinidazole

Flagyl failures are extremely common. Since starting BadBugs back in 1997 less than a handful of people have reported testing negative after Flagyl.

Because of the controversy surrounding the pathogenicity of D.fragilis (see My Story) Flagyl is often prescribed in case of undiagnosed Giardia.

"I first went to the Dr in late May 2014 and without doing any tests he gave me Tinidazole. After about a month I was still not feeling well so I went back and was prescribed Metronidazole 2000mg for three days. It wasn't until I was still not feeling well that I did a stool test - that is what picked up the DIENTAMOEBA FRAGILIS. The antibiotic medication made me quite unwell and felt even worse." (2015)


More successes than failures have been reported to this site.

Iodoquinol is the most cited drug in the older D.fragilis literature. It is more effective when combined with doxycycline as doxycycline weakens the parasite by removing bacteria which the parasite depends on, in part, to survive. Unfortunately, despite it's high cure rate, this drug is now no longer available.


This child recovered only after four treatments with Iodoquinol alone:

Hi...... The drug iodoquinol was prescribed by our doctor. There was an almost immediate response...he got his color back and has never had such symptoms again, i.e. periods of fatigue and pale skin. However I believe he is suffering from damage related to this beast (circumstantial for sure). He remains very shy (a learned response) of tomato based products, such as pizza and spaghetti sauces (tomato soup and ketchup are fine). His stomach (or perhaps lower intestine) remains sensitive perhaps not to tomatoes per se but likely to the added spices. A specialist confirmed Crohns was not it. Which came first, chicken or egg I can't say, that is, whether the infection and aversion to some tomato based products are related OR were they separate conditions. I believe they are related only because of the overlapping timeframes.
Hope this helps...thanks for checking back.


This man's symptoms began when he was 32. He was cured with Iodoquinol as a result of finding this site after 16 years of symptoms:

Hi Jackie,
I just saw your website tonight and was so excited to find someone who has been through the same kind of ordeal that I have. ......

Hello again Jackie:
In a nutshell, here is my story:

I'm 48 years old and until I was the age of approximately 32, I enjoyed excellent health, being very active physically including playing competitive tennis. Then I began feeling very tired after eating both wheat and sugar products. The problem got worse with each passing year. Soon I was feeling lousy after eating dairy products and at that point my wife said "we have to do something about this".

I started getting more colds and flus and generally feeling run down a lot of the time. Finally, in the early 90's, I starting a long journey of seeing first one doctor and then the another. I was given the standard allergy tests with shots injected under the skin and the results were that I was as "healthy a patient as they had seen" according to their measurements. I had gotten to the point where one night I unknowingly ate some dairy sauce and the next morning went into an incredible rage and hostility for no apparent reason. We had heard about "leaky gut syndrome" and figured this was a manifestation of the problem .

Doctors meanwhile were insinuating that it may have been in my head as they, in their infinite expertise, could find no clinical pathology.

Finally, we heard about a holistic doctor with a solid reputation for diagnosing mysterious illnesses and so I went to him in late 1998. He performed blood, urine and stool tests and finally (15 years later) I had a confirmed diagnosis of dientamoeba fragilis. The doctor put me on a regimen of herbal treatments which I have just completed. In addition, I am awaiting results for an updated stool test from Great Smokies Lab in North Carolina. I 'm sure that while the herbs kept the problem at bay, it has not cured it. I'm seriously considering taking Iodoquinol or equivalent but am researching all I can on its risk factors and relative effectiveness. The idea of taking all the toxic drugs without a decent chance of a complete cure is not really appealing; however, after dealing with this for so long I will probably just "bite the bullet" and proceed. ..I also have a whole list of other symptoms which have manifested over the years including foggy mental states, impaired balance, food sensitivities, etc. .

I just got the results back from my doc via the Great Smokie's Lab and it came back negative! I'm not sure that I fully accept the results after anticipating having to use the "artillery" but I'm quitting all herbal supplements and see how I feel. I'll know soon enough if my symptoms re-appear. Incidentally, my doc had me on two different herbal multi pills with each pill having five or six different herbs. The first, put out by Metagenics (phone # in U.S. is 1-800-647-6100) is called Parex and the stronger one (also distributed by Metagenics) is called Microbex. The latter made me nearly throw-up one hour after taking the first time- I had to gradually get up to the full dosage.

Thanks so much for your info and support- it was so validating after such a long time with clueless doctors misleading me that it brought tears to mine and my wife's eyes. You are performing a valuable service in this work!
More Later A

First a a little info about Parex- My first two months in treatment was strictly with just Parex- Subsequent testing showed the DF was still there- So my doc put me on Parex and Microbex for three months; dosage was 2 pills each, three times a day between meals. Micobex contains: Old Man's Beard- 182mg, Grapefruit seed extract- 100mg, Oregon Grape Root- 75mg, Barberry 4:1 Extract- 50mg, Goldenseal Root 4:1 Extract- 25mg, and Cat's Claw Vine- 25mg. I hope this helps. .....
Will be in touch.

Just a quick note to say that I'm having symptoms again- as I found before, the herbs seem to only keep the D.F. at bay and temporarily alleviate the symptoms. After I stopped taking them, it was a steady decline until one day I was so down, irritable, listless etc. that I started taking them again and I picked right up. I advised my doctor, and he was very skeptical- nevertheless, I've convinced him to give me a 20 day subscription of dodoquinol, which I'm praying will do the trick . He's also having me take Hepto-Gen from Vitamin Research Products. It's supposed to protect your liver from free radical damage as a result of the medicine. I'll let you know how I fare.
Will be in touch- A

I've been on the Iodoquinol for 6 of a 20 day regimen and although it very apparent that I'm taking medicine, I must say I am very clear mentally and other symptoms are virtually gone. Previous experience with other antibiotics have yielded similar but lesser results so I'm guardedly optimistic. The first few days were the worst as my body adapted to the drug, but overall it's not as bad as I thought it would be . In fact, today I have felt allot of energy and been very productive. The way I see it, this is probably my last option. If problems persist, I'll probably be taking the herbal remedies the rest of my life. I have come to the conclusion that this parasite (contrary to what my doc feels) is definitely systemic and not restricted to the gut. My mentally faculties go from about a "5" to a "9" or "10" when I get some treatment but relapse within 10 days of quitting . I would love to know specifically why this happens. Of all the symptoms, this is the one I have the hardest time dealing with. Symptoms include confused thinking (like being retarded- knowing you have a certain ability in your "well" state, that is unavailable in your "sick" state), irritability, lack of motivation, and general lethargy. ....

Hi Jackie:
Well the 20 day treatment was not as bad as I thought it would be. All symptoms vanished while on it, but right after I finished it I caught a virus which all members of my family caught. Believe it or not but we have not been able to shake it totally and it's been a month!. I mention this because since I caught it I've had some prostate/urinary symptoms. Otherwise I have been very clear mentally with glimpses of some good energy. I'm cautiously optimistic that the parasites are gone ( I just sent my last 3 day test to the Smokies Lab) but will doubt it if, after getting rid of the virus, I still have symptoms. I have had some moments where I have felt like "so this is how you are supposed to feel". I'll keep you posted on my progress or lack thereof!

Jackie: I just got the results back from the GSD (three day test) and they say I am clear! My subjective experience is that the DF is gone as I don't have the mental fog/confusion, my weight is staying the same, and my energy and strength are back. I think the drug did the trick. Both my wife and I are still experiencing symptoms with this virus which = it turns out has been the flu all along. My regular family doc said it's a tough one to lick. I've felt fine, gone for a four mile hike and experienced a minor relapse. Can't wait to finally shake it- then hopefully all I will have to worry about are my food sensitivities. Anyway, if it is at all possible for you to take the Iodoquinol, I would say try it. Otherwise, a less powerful drug, as you suggested, may be in order. I'm wishing you the best in your efforts- = that critter is a nasty one. Stay in touch and let me know how it's going.

Hi Jackie-
Well it's been about three weeks since I finished the Iodoquinol and I wanted to let you know the results. The best description for how I view the situation is that I am cautiously optimistic that the drug did the trick! Both my mental clarity and urinary function have returned to and are staying at normal levels. Typically, symptoms would return within 7-10 days after finishing a bout of the herbal remedies-- seems the herbs were lessening the symptoms but not curing the condition. The drug really seems to have worked its wonders. The only problem is that the drug blasted my immune system (as usual) and I got a virus about 8 days ago which has been a bear to get rid of. I'm really looking forward to seeing how I feel once the bug is totally gone. Based on this experience, I would definitely recommend trying the drug if there is any way you can tolerate it. ( Subjectively, it did not seem to be a very harsh drug)

:..... I am no longer experiencing DF symptoms and it has been about 5 months since treatment I think it's safe to say that the Iodoquinol worked. I am still very limited in the foods I eat, but the offending foods don't affect me as seriously as before..... It may be that I'll have (food sensitivities) for the rest of my life, but it is great to have energy, weight back on, clear thinking etc. Please advise all your contacts with DF to take the drug if they can.
I want to sincerely thank you for being there at the depths of my despair and say that you are providing a wonderful service with your web site to mankind. Take care of yourself and I'll be in touch.

Hi Jackie,

I feel great. I took the iodoquinol 650 mg three times a day for three weeks, and my gas got far better. I still had burning in my stomach so I got myself tested for H Pylori which I did indeed have, and have since got rid of that too. What can I say, I just feel great: no more gas, and no more chronic stomach pain. I wish the same for you, and I thank you for helping me in my time of need. Take care and don't let anyone give up!


Two treatments with Iodoquinol cured the infection after trying an expensive course herbs:

... I had a test in Feb. that came back as having a small amount of the parasite still remaining. I had been off the ADP (oregano oil) for a couple of months and taking a product called MSM which is basically natural sulphur, and feeling generally quite well. I had also been sticking very strictly to my dairy and sugar free diet. .. My abdominal symptoms were practically gone. I still have a continuous runny nose and sore throat however, headaches and muscle tension as well as acne and emotional ups and downs. My doctor has put me back on both ADP and MSM together to try to kill off the last of it. His explanation to me was that the MSM loosens the parasite from the walls and the ADP kills it. Well whatever its doing it's making me feel disgusting!! It's very frustrating as I thought I was over the worst of it. Now I'm back to feeling fatigued and 'Flu-y' all the time. The doctor says that this is just the 'de-tox' and not a result of side effects from the medication. I see him again in May and I guess I will have to do another stool test to get the all clear. Hope you are doing OK.

Hi Jackie,
I am feeling MUCH better! .....continuing on a no sugar no dairy diet has helped me have more energy, my skin is clearing up at last and the stomach pains are largely gone. I will be doing another test next week for the parasite. Wish me luck!!! It will be a month 'til I get the results.

Hi Jackie,
I waited to reply to you as I was still awaiting results. this whole episode is getting so expensive that I put off having the test and visiting my doctor again. The bad news is that the test came back with an increased amount of the parasite! I knew I had been feeling rotten but was hoping that it was all in my mind! My first test in October last year was 'many', my second test in about March was 'few'. I then continued the treatment 'til July and then took the test in early August. I saw my doctor two weeks ago to get the bad results! He was a bit surprised! He said that people he had treated before, with the ADP and MSM had rid themselves of the bug in 3 months. His only explanation was that I may be being reinfected!?

Anyway he is trying a different treatment which combines two products, 'Paracea' (Biceuticals) which contains Artemisinin, Black walnut and Citrus seed, and one from MMS Pro which is Standardised Olive Leaf pro which is just Olive Leaf Powder.!? Anyway, I am having the same effect, I feel sicker as the parasite is being killed! I see the doctor again in December. $550 later!!!! Plus I am taking a hormone balancing remedy called Indolplex which is working! But that costs $32 a month! I think this Parasite is actually a government plot! Thanks again for you're interest and for spreading the word!
Wendy W

I took two treatments of the Iodoquinol before Christmas, and now I am just waiting. I will get another test done as soon as I have a spare $200. But generally I am a lot better. There were some yukky symptoms from the drug, nausea, tiredness, abdominal pain and acne. It passed though. It's a little hard to tell how well I am as I have had about three different viruses since Xmas. I have also treated both my children as one of them tested positive to DF in December . He hasn't been complaining of stomach pains like he was before which is a good sign. I will let you know when I get the test results, hopefully some time in February.

W contacted two months later to say that her samples were negative for D.f. and she is now symptom free.


Two consecutive treatments with Iodoquinol cured this woman:

Good news. I finally found a doctor who knew how to treat me....... I took Iodoquinol twice. The first time my symptoms were a lot better but still there, so he gave me a second dose which seems to have cured me! Yipee!!! My stool tests from GSD were also clear of fragilis.

A three and a half year old child recovered after two round of Iodoquinol:

Hi Jackie,
My daughter seems to be over her infection of DF. It proved to be a stubborn bug to get rid of, we had to treat her twice. My family physician had not seen a case of DF before and couldn't offer me much information.


Four treatments with Iodoquinol relieved this five year old of his troubling D.fragilis symptoms:

Thank you very much for the information on your web page. Our 5 year old son has been having intestinal problems for three years. We have gone to the doctor many times and he has been treated for everything from sinus problems to stomach viruses to irritable bowel syndrome. Just today we received a lab report that revealed dientamoeba fragilis. The pediatric gastroenterologist had never heard of it and the pediatrician had to look in two different books to find it. I told my wife that after visiting your site, it seemed we knew more than the doctors did about this. The pediatrician did prescribe iodiquinol, which I was glad to see was one of the drugs mentioned on your siteas a good treatment. My only concern is that there is no standardized dosage for children.
Anyway, thank you again for your helpful information!


Thank you for the interest in my son's condition. The doctor prescribed Iodoquinol 210 mg for the twenty day treatment. He was tested for D. fragilis after the twenty days, but there was some still detected in the sample, so the doctor again put him on another twenty day regimen of Iodoquinol 210 mg. We are hoping this second treatment will take care of the infection. I will try to let you know how this second treatment turns out. He just started it the other day. By the way, no I don't mind if you add my e-mail to your web site. People need to know what is going on. Thanks again for your concern.

Yes, that is correct. It took 3 rounds to clear the infection. Please do post that information on your site, so others can know that it might take several attempts to get rid of it. I believe your site already mentions that possibility, but here is further evidence and documentation. Keep up the good work. If I get ant new information, I will surely pass it on to you.

The child relapsed yet again and was retreated with Iodoquinol:

Hello! Sorry to take so long to reply. My son had to take another round of medication, but is now infection free. The change in him is incredible!
Thank you again for your helpful information!



More Humatin/Paro failures than successes have been reported to this site.

(The author of this site tested positive after taking Humatin twice, a month apart.


My name is Bart. I live in the Netherlands. While searching the web for Dientamoeba fragilis I came across your e-mail of October 1998. At the moment I experience the same thing you described. For two years I felt really sick (weight loss, headache, vomiting, fatigue etc.). Recent lab research has shown that I have been infected by DF . However, my doctor tells me this parasite cannot be responsible for the symptoms I faced. He says parasite is considered to be non-pathogenic and symptoms are only diarrhea and abdominal pain (Not seriously enough to treat).
I recently found another doctor who prescribes paromomycine (Humatin) or clioquinol.
Thank you for your help.

Hi Jackie,
Thanks for your quick response after my first mail. Your web site was very informative. To find out I was not the only one struggling was encouraging. .... Reading the web site really encouraged me to find a sollution to get rid this parasite. Meanwhile have been visiting the docters and finally last week I started treatment with Paromomycine (5 days) in combination with food supplements. After a few days I felt better (clear head). Now the paromomycine is finished, I continue with food supplements. I expect to gain weight soon. .....Next week I will have my faeces checked again.

......For the time being I am really happy to feel better. The doctors in Amsterdam (AMC) still could not tell me wether DF was pathogenic or not. I know DF made me feel terrible - while the doctor told me it was just stress.

Thank you for putting al the information together. I was sorry to hear you are still struggling and I hope you'll find a sollution soon. You will hear from me as soon as the lab sends me concrete results. Thank you once again.
Good luck

Footnote: The result of 3 fixed samples was negative and Bart remains well.


Hi Jacky,

Indeed it has been a long time. A lot has changed for me since then.

As a told you I finally found a second doctor who suggested testing for parasites. After positive tests (TFT) for parasites (dientamoeba fragilis) the treatment with paromomycine (=Humatin = Gabroral) worked out fine. I started to feel better after a while. No more sleepless nights, no more vomiting and abdominal pain. The headaches were over and most important because of all this I started to feel alive again.

After the parasites were gone (the last TFT tests from the specialized lab in Amsterdam showed negative for parasites) it took me a while to get rid of candida. The treatment was to start a diet no sugar, less milk and some food supplements (Bifidum). I also tried nystatine and other medicine, but that did not really work out. I think I finally got rid of the candida as well.

The only thing left for me is to regain weight again. I lost 8 kilo's during the two years the parasites were active which is a lot because my weight was only 68 kilos.

Meanwhile I finished my studies and got a very good grade for my final thesis. Currently I am applying for a job. I want to thank for your support. The information on your site really helped me a lot. Especially in the discussions I had with my family doctor after parasites (DF) were found. He still thinks DF is non-pathogenic and my symptoms were a result of stress. I still cannot figure out why my family doctor did not suggest testing for parasites in the first place.


"It has been more than two months since we used "Humatin" for one cycle (as usual for an antibiotic) What an amazing improvement! We are talking about an ongoing problem since he was a toddler. He is now eleven. No attacks, no late night writhing on the bathroom floor followed by gelatinous, explosive diaharea. No periods of malaise, on the verge of stomach upset, for days at a time. And the biggest miracle of all, no more bedwetting. This had been a once, twice and even three times nightly occurance, sine he was a wee tike.

It was driving all of us crazy. I wore out my washing machine. Lucky for him, we tried to stay focussed on the notion that there was a physiological cause for his problems. This wasn't always easy. Now an interesting question, He was stricken with mononucleosis when he was seven, he also had a lot of warts on his face and hands. Now I'm wondering if the DF was sapping his resistance?

If that was the case, thank God we have found out what the problem was before he came down with something really life threatening. This was all confounding because this is an active, big boned, lean and muscular boy...... Mom's opinion!!!! You'd look at him and think, how can he be sick? But every morning when he would eat his breakfast he looked pretty dull with dark circles under his eyes, and then every few or three weeks there would be an attack . I'll be glad to share our experience with anyone who is in the "same boat". We had been confounded for years. Fortunately ours is a saga with a happy ending. (USA. 2000)


This woman relapsed after tetracycline but was subsequently cured with Humatin (Paromomycin):

"I began having diarrhea after Christmas '99, first waving it off as a reaction to some of the more elaborate foods I had had during Christmas dinner, or perhaps a slight case of food poisoning from a little diner I had eaten at a couple days before. Yet as the very loose stool continued for over a couple weeks, I went to my doctor (at the time I was still seeing my pediatrician, yes, I was a bit old for that!) and they took 3 stool samples . They found D. Fragilis right away; however, they had not heard of it before and had to do some research to come up with a suitable solution. I was put on Flagyl which i took while away at school, but it had no effect on me.

Let me tell you, experiencing the explosive diarrhea in the university floor bathrooms was not a great experience. I was given a book on IBS by a friends mother who has many gastrointestinal problems as well (although she is gluten intolerant) and I began on several limiting diets to see whether this problem could be related to a food intolerance or allergy. I cut wheat, sugar, and dairy from my daily diet. Whether it was from the lack of sugar or from the ameoba itself, i became very depressed, and still am, as well as extremely cranky and irritable . I truly feel awful for all those who had to be around me constantly for my mood would swing in an instant. Not only did I become obsessed with food (since i couldn't eat a lot of it), I also began craving sugar.

On spring break they put me on the flagyl again, yet it wasn't doing anything but rip up my stomach more so I stopped in the middle of the treatment, opting not to finish the pills. Another stool test showed D. Fragilis but in a much smaller count, which seemed to satisfy the doctors for the time being (by this time i had switched to another doctor who really didn't do much for me).

I began taking acidophilous, Lactopherin, and pancreatin to rebuild my intestinal flora. After a couple months my symptoms began to fade around the end of May, and I thought I had conquered this beast. Coming home for the summer, I was still very cautious about the foods I would eat, staying away from really fatty, greasy, and sugary foods , however upon weighing myself I noticed I had lost over 17 pounds. In July the symptoms started again, worrying everyone, especially me.

I was switched to my mothers doctor, who speculated that the ameoba had ripped through my stomach and intestines, causing it to become very sensitive to foods, and that it'll simply take time to heal. After a couple weeks of the worsening symptoms, I was given another stool test, and during the week we waited for the results, we were recommended to a GI specialist, who i went to see immediately. Of course by this time I had lost more weight, concerning him greatly, and he wanted to schedule me for a barium swallow and possibly a colinoscospy. My results came back from the stool test, showing the D. Fragilis back in full swing. During my down time the little buggars must have multiplied and gotten ready for another attack on my system.

Even being a GI specialist, he had never heard of DF, and had to look it up. He, as well as the last doctor, was confused about its nature and how it is not considered a pathogen by most. The pediatrician i had seen most likely thought that the DF was accompanied by Giardia which was causing my symptoms, and therefore gave me the ineffective flagyl. Upon looking it up, the specialist put me on a tetracycline, of which i am on the last day of dosage, and have not seen any results.

I came across this web site and discovered the positive affects of Iodoquin (sp?). We are now waiting for the doctor to return our call about administering this drug. During the last couple weeks I have become extremely fatigued and intermittently depressed. Every morning my stomach wakes me up at am telling me its time to flush out my system and some days I have diarrhea up to 8 times, while others I may have just 3 very bad bouts.

....Hoping for the best, i'll take this new drug, even though the side effects do not look pleasant, ...... I can't wait to gain back the weight, I really hate the way i look right now and the thought of people thinking I'm anorexic is horrible. Its amazing I haven't gained it back, considering I eat like there's no tomorrow- big meals and lost of snacking between. I really feel for those who have had this for as much as 5 years. We all get through it though, day by day.

Hi Jackie,
Well, the day I wrote to you was the tenth and last day of taking the tetracycline, and it was also the day that I completely stopped having diarrhea. At first the shock of not going to the bath room seven times made me a bit uneasy, however I took it as a turn for the better. The hard stool lasted three days, but it wasn't a lot and it made me wonder where all my food was going! Then I finally 'had the urge' to go (first time since the end of the diarrhea) and it started as hard, yet my stomach started to really hurt and it turned soft, very soft. I believe its due to being stopped up in me for so long instead of the return of the ameoba, although i could be wrong because the morning after I had diarrhea as well. I've gained back a couple pounds, yay! The thing is, after reading all the emails on your web site, I'm so sure this 'normality' will last. It seems that tetracycline didn't work for many people and if it did, they relapsed after a short while... so I'm a bit skeptical at the moment. Also, I forgot to mention that all during my DF infection (assuming its over!) I had very bad anal itching and horrible flatulence. The flatulence has remained, and that's another reason i think I might relapse back into the DF. The itching is another thing- I've heard that pin worm can carry DF into the body, and pin worm causes anal itching... have you heard this as well? (the pin worm being a carrier part) . So as of now, I'm not sure where my treatments are going - for the moment we're just waiting to see how it goes. Its almost strange to be normal again... I've become accustomed to how I look, and although I hate it, its also going to be hard to gain back the weight. Very psychological, but i know it'll be easier than I think, since i've already begun! Of course you can post the email on the net; I'm happy to release any information that will help others get through the struggle- I know its a difficult one!

I finished the tetracycline about a week and a half ago, and had another stool test to establish whether or not it had worked. During the medication I felt great, although I still wasn't gaining back the wieght . Not only was I eating twice as much as I did before I was sick, I was (and still am) on powdered shake mixes to gain weight! Well, the tests came back a couple days ago, and the DF is back in full force - they also found white blood cells, leading them to think I may have some kind of infection, maybe Colitis or something.

We set up an appointment with the DF specialist at Yale-New Haven Hospital for October 6th, and they may want to give me a colonoscopy (They didn't last time) just to be sure its only DF they are dealing with, and not a mystery bug as well.

I'm hoping I dont begin loosing weight again, because from my current weight (104 lbs) that would not be very healthy. I had the feeling that the tetracycline wouldn't work simply from reading the emails on your web page, and whatever Dr. Bia (the specialist) perscribes will be the next step; whether its Iodiquinol or another approach. I've heard that the side effects (other than the possibility of going blind) on Iodiquinol are quite harsh - do you know anything about it? I'll keep you posted as to what happens. Thank you so much for writing! R

Hi Jackie!
...... Well, I went to see a specialist at Yale New Haven Hospital about a month ago. He didn't believe us when I said I've have DF for a year now, so he took stool sample (my fifth test...) and tested it at his own labratory. When indeed it came back positive, he put me on Paramomysin (also called Humatin), which I took for 2 weeks 3 times a day.

The same weekend I went to see my regular GI doctor for a Colonoscopy. Everything went well (except they had problems with the IV - which I didn't like since I hate needles as it is!) The results showed that I had an inflamed and swollen colon, but nothing too bad, thankfully. He gave me Asacol to reduce the swelling.


As you know after my tetracycline failure I went to see a specialist at Yale New Haven Hospital; Dr. Frank Bia, and he put me on Paramomycin (humatin) 3 times a day for 2 weeks. I was still skeptical that it would not work, having been through several other drugs, however - it seems that it has! I've been off the drug for about 2 months, and have been tested twice since then and both have come back negative. Its such a relief. DF lasted in my system for just over a year, I almost miss the little guys! I can eat whatever I want now, although my intestines are still recovering and can be set off quit easily if I eat the wrong thing. Greasy and fatty are still a problem,
but not as much as they were with DF.


Many more tetracycline failures than successes have been reported to this site.

In this case D.f. was cured after 10 days of tetracycline followed with Iodoquinol:

"The good part it IS treatable and I am finally healthy.

The treatment was brutal...but first the symptoms... for almost six months my doctor told me it was stress since I was writing my Masters thesis and my Dad had just died of brain cancer.

For the most part, it seemed to act like irritatable bowel syndrowne. ..bouts of constipation and then weird painful bowel pains but then diarrehea at other times...some times I would not have a bowel movement for 3 days and then I would have diarreha. The most telltale sign for me was just feeling ILL ALL the time. I felt as if I was eating and hungry but I would feel faint and nauseated at the same time. As well I had food sentivities..milk would cause alot of pain..which made me think lactose intolerate but in fact this parasite causes lactose intolerance. The way I was diagonised was my doctor ran a stool culture and they were found.

Some doctors will not treat this parasite since they say it is common to everyone ..... I went on tetracyline..a very commonly prescribed antibotic for 10 days...except I was soooo sick (the dose was extremely high) I only took it for eight days. I lost 10 pounds (I'm not very heavy set) and felt terrible after.

A follow up stool culture was run and they found some more, so I found a second antibotic, Diiodiquiol (Iodoquinol) that is specific to intestinal infections for 21 days. I also felt sick on this antibotic but not as severe. I didn't lose any more weight but I definately didn't put any on! The follow-up culture was clear. Now, I feel great. I am at my normal weight....." (1997)

Footnote: This woman was the first person I came into contact with who was infected with D.fragilis. I was chronically unwell at the time, but advised by a number of Sydney gastroenterologists to accept that D.fragilis is not a pathogen, and that my chronic ill health and weight loss was due to Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Needless to say I was very happy to hear from someone who had the same symptoms as I before being treated, and that recovery was possible. Her experience made me question current medical thinking. More in "my story".

Natural Therapies

No reports to this site between 1997 and 2014 where herbs or other natural therapies have resulted in a sustained or significant reduction in symptoms.

The following emails are typical of people who have tried that route:

"I did the cloves, wormwood, black walnut treatment for 2.5 months and retested. All three samples again showed "many" DF." (2009)

"Although the herbs have helped my IBS, if I eat or drink anything that feeds the DF, I am back where I started, the constipation, dizzy head puritus, lethargy etc." Jan 06

Bad Medicine

More examples of unnecessary suffering:

"I am writing to you in tears. I have not been able to sit on the toilet for a year because of the severe pain I experience each time I have a bowel movement. I break out in hives after each bm. I recently saw both my internist and gastroenterologist for the 4th time. They made light of the DF parasite, claiming it to be non-pathogenic. The gastro doctor has recommended a colonoscopy". 27 Sept 2005 US

"I wish there had have been a site like yours up this past summer, I couldn't find much information on D. fragilis when I needed it." (USA. 1998)

'My 7 year old son has been infected with D.Fragilis for at least 2 years. His symptoms were better for a while after 2 treatments with Diodiquin. Unfortunately his D.Fragilis is back, he hasn't gained any weight in 6 months,has weird stool almost always and stomach cramps, lack of appetite etc. We have been to the infectious disease specialists at the Children's Hosp. in Calgary, and received the same response others have had. It's nothing to worry about!" Canada, August 2005

"Every single aspect of life is a struggle at the moment for me. I cannot plan anything and even if I have a night out with my friends I find it hard to eat the next day even though I have only been drinking water on the night out. The nausea comes all the way from my stomach to my mouth, it is so overwhelming at times that it is painful to be conscious" wrote an Irish law student who had "strugglled for three years with aggravating symptoms" before contacting me. His dr does not believe there is a any connection between his symptoms and the parasite. (July 2005)

Thank you so much for your web site. None of the doctors around here seem to know of any treatment but Flagyl and then more Flagyl. The more it doesn't work, the more they want you to take it again. If it weren't for your web site, I wouldn't have discovered any alternatives. D.fragilis sufferer, USA. Nov. 2005

"My doctor did offer to treat me for depression when I was at my worst. I think that this is somewhat humourous that he has no problem offering me drugs to treat me for depression but does not want to recognize my intestinal symptoms as a serious condition. S. 2005

"When my naturopath looked at the result, her response was also that this parasite is in everybody and totally normal. I see what you mean about testing is only a small part of the battle." A. diagnosed with both D.fragilis and B.hominis. Canada. December 05

"Although my doctor kept quoting the literature that this bug was nonpathogenic, he did try. It was getting harder and harder to convince him to keep treating though."

A woman was still testing positive for Dientamoeba fragilis after two treatments of doxycyline, two of iodoquinol and one combination of both doxycycline and Iodoquinol. December 2005

"Doctors meanwhile were insinuating that it may have been in my head as they, in their infinite expertise, could find no clinical pathology". (USA. April 2000 - full story here)

"I have tried to "educate" my GP about DF but although he can acknowledge that I have symptoms (which is why he relented to treatment) when he gets frustrated by our lack of progress he still falls back on whatever manual they have that says it is not a pathogen! Then he decides not to treat or to refer me (which takes months). " December 2005. USA